The Biopsychosocial Model
Why is it so hard to resist and/or change a bad habit? Maybe it is because of a weak character, or maybe it's the genetics that are responsible for the heavy drinking or heavy smoking, or maybe it is the society's fault that perpetuates a ''perfect model'' that almost everyone is struggling to keep up with.
Actually the answer is all of the above, which can be explained through the Biopsychosocial Model.
Two Austrian biologists, Paul Alfred Weiss and Ludwig von Bertalanffy, realized that in order to do science properly, they had to address the complexity of different environments, and they introduced the idea of open systems. This term shows that biology cannot be solely reduced to chemistry and physics. This is where the General Systems Theory was developed which integrates a broad range of special system theories by naming and identifying patterns and processes common to all of them. Physician Franz Alexander, who is considered to be one of the founders of psychosomatic medicine, found that many diseases such as disturbances of the gastro-intestinal track, thyrotoxicosis, and diabetes are triggered by emotional causes. This reveals the importance of biological along with psychological factors that cause an illness to occur. More specifically, if we go back to one of the examples above (heavy drinking), it is clear that is due to all three factors: biological, psychological and social.
According to the Biological Perspective, researches now have ide